Assessment of three Tropical Chlorophytes as Bioassay Organisms for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Enrichment in Freshwater Ecosystems.
Chu, Wan Loyt, and Ramadhona, Mala Silva, and Phang, Siew Moi, (2007) Assessment of three Tropical Chlorophytes as Bioassay Organisms for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Enrichment in Freshwater Ecosystems. Malaysian Journal of Science, 26 (2). pp. 15-25. ISSN 13943065
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International Medical University, Human Biology Section
University of Malaya. Faculty of Science. lnstitute of Biological Sciences
Abstract Enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems can lead to excessive blooming of algae, resulting in eutrophication. The main objective of the present study was to assess the potential use of three tropical chlorophytes, namely Chlorella vulgar/s UMACC 001, Scenedesmus quadricauda UMACC 041 and Ankislrodesmus convolutus UMACC 101 as test organisms for the bioassay of nitrogen and phosphorus. The minimal medium used in this study was 1% Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM), which contained 0.03 mM NaNO3 or NH4C1 and 0.02 mM phosphate (KH2PO4 and K2HPO4). The algae were grown in the minimal medium added with NaNO3 or NH4C1 ranging from 0.03, 0.15, 0.75, 3.75 to 18.75 mM for 96 hours using flask cultures. The dilution water without nitrogen and phosphorus was used as the control. For the phosphate experiments, the cultures were grown at 0, 0.02, 0.10, 0.50, 2.50 and 12.50 mM phosphate (KH2PO4 and K2HPO4) in 1% BBM containing 0.03 mM NaNO3 or NH4C1. There was no marked difference in the specific growth rates (fr) of the three chlorophytes in response to nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment. The percentage growth enhancement (PGE96) based on the percentage increase of cell number at 96 hours compared to that attained in dilution water was a useful parameter for the bioassay of nitrogen and phosphorus. The suitability of the algae as test organisms was assessed based on the linearity of the relationship between PGE96 and nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, as indicated by the regression coefficient (R2). It was also based on the EC50, which was the effective concentration that gave a PGE96 of 50%. Based on the two parameters, Chiorella vulgaris was found to be a suitable test organism for the bioassay of NaNO3 (EC50 = 0.56 mM; R2 = 0.98) while Ankistrodesmus convolutus was suitable for the bioassay of NH4C1 (EC50 = 0.005; r2= 0.86). When grown on NaNO3, the sensitivity of Chiorella vulgar/s to phosphate enrichment was very low (EC50 = 822.72 mM). In comparison, when grown on NH4C1, the three algae were sens tive to phosphate enrichment (EC50 = 0.08-0.12 mM). The three algae would be useful for the bioassay of phosphate in water samples containing NEI4CI as the dominant nitrogen source.
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