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Bonding Properties And Performance Of Multi-Layered Kenaf Board

Paridah M.T., and Nnor Hafizah A.W. , and Zaidon A., and Azmi I., and Mohd Nnor M.Y., and Nor Yuziah M.Y., (2009) Bonding Properties And Performance Of Multi-Layered Kenaf Board. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21 (2). pp. 113-122. ISSN 0128-1283

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Universiti Putra Malaysia, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product
Universiti Teknology Mara. Faculty of Civil Engineering
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Malayan Adhesive and Chemical


Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) has recently been introduced to the Malaysian bio-composite industry. Based on their basic properties, both the bast fibres and core material of kenaf are distinctly different. While bast fibres are stiffer and low in wettability, the core material of kenaf is weaker and has excellent absorbing properties. This study evaluated the properties of kenaf board made from a combination of bast fibres and core material. The bast fibres were separated first from the core, followed by pre-treatment with NaOH, then combing until the fibres became loose. The properties of kenaf board were tested using MS standards 1787: 2005. An analysis of variance was carried out to study the effects of resin types and bast to core proportion on the boards. The buffering capacity study revealed that kenaf bast, kenaf core and rubberwood behaved similarly in alkali but differently in an acidic condition. Both the kenaf bast and core were relatively less stable in acid compared with rubberwood. Due to its morphological characteristics, the kenaf core inner surface exhibited higher wettability than the outer surface. There was significant interaction between resin type and the proportion of bast:core at p < 0.01. Generally, boards made from 100% kenaf core and bonded with urea formaldehyde (UF) resin had superior performance. The mechanical properties [modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond (IB)] of the boards were significantly influenced by the amount of bast fibre in the board––the higher the amount, the poorer the strengths. This effect, however, was reversed for thickness swelling (TS). Only UF-bonded kenaf-based boards had comparable water absorption (WA) property to that of the control (100% rubberwood). The incorporation of low molecular weight phenol formaldehyde (LPF) resin in the fibres had mixed effects on board properties. The effects varied based on the resin used; it improved the MOE and MOR of the board but not the IB, TS and WA when used with UF resin. It improved the IB only when used with melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF) resin. The best performance was given by boards made from 100% kenaf core irrespective of the type of resin used. All kenaf boards in this study had higher MOR than that of 100% rubberwood. Insufficient curing of LPF resin was identified as the main factor for the poor performance of LPF-bonded boards.

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) kini diperkenalkan dalam industri bio-komposit di Malaysia. Berdasarkan ciri asasnya, kedua-dua ciri gentian kulit dan bahan teras kenaf nyata berbeza. Gentian kulit lebih keras dan mempunyai nilai pembasahan yang lebih rendah berbanding dengan bahan teras kenaf yang sangat lemah dan mempunyai ciri penyerapan yang baik. Kajian ini menilai ciri papan kenaf yang diperbuat daripada kombinasi gentian kulit dan bahan teras kenaf. Mula-mula gentian kulit dipisahkan daripada teras, diikuti oleh pra-rawatan dengan NaOH dan disikat sehingga gentian menjadi longgar. Ciri papan kenaf diuji menggunakan Piawaian Malaysia MS 1787: 2005. Analisis varians dijalankan untuk menyelidiki kesan jenis perekat dan nisbah kulit:teras terhadap papan. Kulit kenaf, teras kenaf dan kayu getah mempunyai ciri keupayaan menampan yang sama iaitu sensitif dalam keadaan alkali. Dalam keadaan asid, kulit kenaf dan teras kenaf agak kurang stabil berbanding dengan kayu getah. Disebabkan ciri morfologinya, permukaan dalam teras kenaf mempamerkan nilai pembasahan yang lebih tinggi daripada permukaan luar. Jenis perekat dan nisbah kulit:teras memberi kesan signifikan kepada prestasi papan pada p < 0.01. Secara amnya, papan yang diperbuat daripada 100% bahan teras kenaf dan dilekat dengan perekat urea formaldehid (UF) memberikan prestasi terbaik. Ciri-ciri mekanik [modulus kekenyalan (MOE), modulus kepecahan (MOR), ikatan dalaman (IB)] papan sangat dipengaruhi oleh jumlah gentian kulit yang digunakan––lebih banyak gentian kulit, lebih lemah papan. Bagaimanapun, perkara yang sebaliknya berlaku bagi pembengkakan ketebalan (TS). Hanya papan kenaf yang menggunakan perekat UF mempunyai serapan air (WA) yang setanding dengan nilai yang dicapai oleh papan serpai kawalan (100% kayu getah). Penggabungan perekat fenol formaldehid berjisim molekul rendah (LPF) dalam gentian menghasilkan pelbagai kesan terhadap ciri papan. Jika digunakan dengan perekat UF, MOR dan MOE dipertingkatkan tetapi tidak untuk IB, TS dan WA. IB dipertingkatkan sekiranya digunakan dengan melanin urea formaldehid (MUF). Papan yang diperbuat daripada 100% teras kenaf menunjukkan prestasi terbaik tanpa dipengaruhi oleh jenis perekat. Kesemua papan kenaf mempunyai MOR yang lebih tinggi daripada papan daripada 100% kayu getah. Pengesetan yang tidak cukup dikenal pasti sebagai faktor utama papan berperekat LPF menunjukkan prestasi yang lemah

Item Type:Journal
Keywords:Wettability, buffering capacity, bast fibre, core material
Subjects:S Agriculture, Forestry
ID Code:8555

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